Once again the Germans attacked in tightly bunched waves and again they were met with rifle fire so intense that they thought the British were equipped with machine guns. Tactics changed during the war and what might now be called SOPs - Standard Operating Procedures had emerged by the end of the conflict. At the beginning of the war the French particularly were keen to press the attack.
In part this was a philosophical concept based on the desire to regain the territory lost in the Franco-Prussian War. The French theorist Colonel C. Ardent du Picq believed that morale was the winning factor while Marshal Ferdinand Foch expressed the belief that it was impossible to lose a battle until the general believed himself defeated.
In even though the first trench warfare had been fought in the Russo-Japanese War and even in parts of the American Civil War, few theorists imagined it would happen in Europe where a conflict would surely be one of manoeuvre.
However, from the outset of the fighting the Germans tactically concentrated these already coordinated battalion teams into batteries and thus gave the appearance, and effect, of having even more machine guns than they actually did. This appeared the case at Loos when German machine gun crews opened fire at 1, metres on the advancing British infantry on the afternoon of 26 September They inflicted 8, casualties 50 per cent on just two British New Army divisions 21st and 24th.
One single German machine gun crew is said to have fired 12, rounds. In the British and Germans made a change from a defensive to a more offensive role for the machine gun. The British had established the Machine Gun Corps to undertake highly coordinated offensive and defensive tactics, including barrages. The infantry then concentrated on the deployment, with much success, of the lighter Lewis machine guns at the platoon level. In what reads like current infantry tactics each group provided covering fire for the other.
When they reached the French position the enemy had fled and the Germans realised that the reason their casualties were so low was that the French had not adjusted the sights on their rifles and were aiming high.
As can be imagined Rommel was the exception in At the time the British, French and Germans all believed that offence was the war-winning tactic and if supporting fire was concentrated correctly the impetus of the assault would succeed. Terrain could shape the theory and practice of tactical formations.
In this formation the platoon formed a loose column four abreast to in theory present the minimum target for artillery:. Then we met a second hedge and then a wet ploughed field. On switching my attention from the ground to the platoon in front I found by some unexplained means they had disappeared and left no sign of themselves! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. Civil War culture in America—both North and South—was greatly distinct from life in the antebellum years. The election of Abraham Lincoln in caused seven southern states to secede and form the Confederate Though neither the Union nor the Confederacy had a formal military intelligence network during the Civil War, each side obtained crucial information from spying or espionage operations.
From early in the war, the Confederacy set up a spy network in the federal capital of These units had tenuous ties to the regular Confederate and Union Armies and were In many ways, the coming of the Civil War challenged the ideology of Victorian domesticity that had defined the lives of men and women in the antebellum era.
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In the North and in the South, the war forced women into public life in ways they could scarcely have imagined a With icy conditions, slick surfaces and freezing temperatures, technological innovation is especially important for the athletes and organizers of the Winter Olympics. From an all-weather torch to a souped-up bobsled, check out some of the many inventions the Games have One-third of the soldiers who fought for the Union Army were immigrants, and nearly one in 10 was African American. The Union Army was a multicultural force—even a multinational one.
We often hear about Irish soldiers 7. This Day In History.
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New Kinds of Weapons Before the Civil War , infantry soldiers typically carried muskets that held just one bullet at a time. The Railroad More important than these advanced weapons were larger-scale technological innovations such as the railroad. The Telegraph Abraham Lincoln was the first president who was able to communicate on the spot with his officers on the battlefield.
Civil War Technology.
Civil War Sketchbook. Civil War Counter-Terrorism. Mobile telegraph wagons reported and received communications from just behind the frontline. President Lincoln would regularly visit the Telegraph Office to get the latest news. The telegraph also enabled news sources to report on the war in a timely fashion, leading to an entirely new headache for the government: how to handle the media.
A Balloon Corps was established by President Lincoln early on. The maiden voyage of the first official Union balloon occurred in late August, Balloon operators used another wartime innovation, the telegraph, to let commanders on the ground know of Confederates movements. This allowed Union guns to be repositioned and fired accurately at troops more than three miles away-a first in military history. The North had a distinct advantage, with superior infrastructure 20, miles of track , better equipment and their own locomotive factory. Whereas the South had just 9, miles of track and had converted its locomotive works into an armaments factory.
The trains allowed generals to move their soldiers, supplies and armaments to where they were most needed. Rail centers and railroad infrastructure soon became targets for attack. While the South's rail system was weak, they were the first to use trains to their advantage, transporting supplies and soldiers to vital areas. The North was stymied by railroad owners more concerned with how much they could charge, than how quickly they could aid the cause.
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